CNC Machine Tools: CNC machines are automated machines, which are operated by computers executing pre-programmed sequences of controlled commands creating movable axis that cut or erode material from stock. CNC Programming: Computer numerical control (CNC) programming is the process used to create program instructions in a computer interface to control a CNC machine's axis and tooling. G-code and M-code are the main software programming languages used to program a CNC machine. A CAD program can also be utilized to help design your machined part. Industrial Manufacturing: The industrial manufacturing industry is responsible for the fabrication of products intended for industrial use from raw materials. This manufacturing process is done in a machine shop: a room, building, or company where machining, a form of subtractive manufacturing, is done. Turning Center - Lathe: With advancement in technology the term lathe is now most often referred to as a CNC Turning Center, The difference is that the more modern turning machine tool is now controlled through a computer operated interface. The simplest turning center has two axes: the X-Axis and Z-Axis. Just like a lathe a workpiece or bar stock will be rotated from a fixed position on the headstock held by a chucking or collet device. The headstock holds your main spindle that will determine the overall diameter or turning capacity of the workpiece. Unwanted material is then removed by the introduction of a cutting tool. Your modern turning centers are equipped with a turret providing multiple tools for use on the current application. With the addition of a tailstock the part can be rotated between centers allowing for a longer turning length determined by the overall length of the machine’s bed. Instead of a tailstock a turning center may be equipped with a sub spindle allowing the machine to grab and rotate from the opposite side of your part so that the other end of the part can be machined and completed. As the turning center became more advanced other multi axes were equipped allowing machining to be done from different geometries. An example of this would be the Y-axis that allows the machine to be cut across the part. Another prominent feature you will see on certain machines is the use of live tools. With live tooling you will be able to rotate a cutting tool allowing for milling, slotting, drilling and tapping of your turned part. Like most current machines the turning center can be equipped with many different options such as: chip conveyors, steady rests, high pressure coolant, spindle thru coolant, tool changers, bar feeds, parts catchers, loading systems, measuring systems, tool probes, and multiple turrets. Machining Centers: A machining center is a CNC machine tool with versatility and flexibility in regards to removing unwanted materials from a manufactured machined part. These machines come in two categories: Vertical Machining Centers (VMC) and Horizontal Machining Centers (HMC). The difference between these two machines is the positioning of the spindle. With vertical machining centers the spindle moves down from on top cutting across the part, while a horizontal machining center’s spindle comes from a linear side position milling across the table. Another difference is that more than often the vertical machining center will have a fixed positioned table while a horizontal machining center obtains the ability to rotate the table at a given index. Milling, drilling, boring, and tapping can be performed on these machine tools. Both machines usually consist of one spindle that can be equipped with different types of cutting tools located in the machine’s tool changer. In addition both machines operate in a square workspace consisting of a X-Axis, Y-Axis and Z-Axis. A 4th axis can be added with a rotary table and a 5th axis can be added by the use of a tilting trunnion table ( A-axis, C-Axis). The spindles can range in speed (RPM) depending on the size of cut and material being milled. Higher rate spindles are called high speed machining. With the vertical machine being a bit more simplistic compared to a horizontal, you see a much smaller footprint and price. Milling from a horizontal approach gives you more options and geometries to work with. A machining center can be considered universal when you are able to tilt the spindle at an angle with the ability to create complexity geometres to your manufactured part. Because of these machines versatility they can come with a wide range of options: 4 or 5 Axes, high pressure coolant, coolant thru spindle, chip conveyor, pallet changer, tool changer, tool break detection, ethernet, linear guideways, tool probe, glass scales, chillers, rigid tapping and threading. CNC Grinder: A CNC grinder is a type of machine tool used in manufacturing as a form of abrasive machining. By the use of a rotating abrasive wheel the machine is able to remove unwanted stock of material from your machined part. CNC grinding is considered to be one of the final steps in production as unlike a turning machine or machining center the grinder will remove smaller amounts of stock in order to create the desired tolerance and surface finish needed. By utilizing a grinding process you are able to obtain extreme accuracy and repeatability. The metalworking industry has many different types of grinders making them very versatile, below are some of the more common types.